Monday, December 31, 2018

Breaking Down Office Clerks, General -- How Many Sedentary and Light Jobs are There?

After we knock out the vast majority of production, inspection, and packing jobs, vocational experts increasingly turn to clerical jobs as examples of unskilled light and sedentary work that an impaired person can do.  We start the process of counting jobs with the course of administrative notice, the Occupational Outlook Handbook.

43-9061 Office clerks, general

Typical Education Needed
High school diploma or equivalent
Work Experience in a Related Occupation
None
Typical On-The-Job Training Needed to Attain Competency
Short-term on-the-job training
2016 Employment
3,117,700

We start with the observation that these jobs typically require a high school education or equivalent and are typically unskilled.  Couple those two observations with 3.1 million jobs and this looks like a huge source of jobs for a vocational expert to cite and an ALJ to find.  We turn to the Occupational Requirements Survey to assess the nature of the work by specifics rather than typicality.  

43-9061.00 (office clerks, general)

Series ID: ORUV1000075800000064
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: % of office clerks, general; svp is short demonstration only
Requirement: Education, Training, And Experience
Occupation: office clerks, general
Estimate: svp is short demonstration only
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual5.8

Series ID: ORUV1000075800000065
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: % of office clerks, general; svp is beyond short demonstration, up to & including 1 month
Requirement: Education, Training, And Experience
Occupation: office clerks, general
Estimate: svp is beyond short demonstration, up to & including 1 month
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual29.5

These two data points reinforce the notion that typical does not mean most.  It can mean most but can also mean the median or in this case the plurality.  The largest chunk of general office clerks is 29.5% and that represents a plurality of the jobs.  If we are looking for sedentary or light unskilled work, we just knocked 65% of the jobs out of contention.  Of the 74 DOT codes that inhabit general office clerks, 11 are unskilled.  

DOTCode
DOTTitle
SVP
STRENGTH
205.367-030
ELECTION CLERK
2
S
209.367-026
FINGERPRINT CLERK I
2
L
209.667-014
ORDER CALLER
2
L
222.587-038
ROUTER
2
L
222.687-034
STUBBER
2
M
229.587-010
GREIGE-GOODS MARKER
2
L
245.367-014
BLOOD-DONOR-UNIT ASSISTANT
2
L
249.587-010
BOARD ATTENDANT
2
L
249.587-014
CUTTER-AND-PASTER, PRESS CLIPPINGS
2
S
249.587-018
DOCUMENT PREPARER, MICROFILMING
2
S
294.667-010
AUCTION ASSISTANT
2
L

We now turn to painting the exertion landscape, again with the ORS.

Series ID: 
ORUP1000075800000661
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: % of office clerks, general; strength is sedentary
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: office clerks, general
Estimate: strength is sedentary
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual32.8

Series ID: ORUP1000075800000662
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: % of office clerks, general; strength is light work
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: office clerks, general
Estimate: strength is light work
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual41

This puts a curious spin on the DOT and its list of non-sedentary/light work in the occupational group of 74 DOT codes, just two:

DOT Code
DOT Title
SVP
STRENGTH
222.687-034
STUBBER
2
M
962.167-018
PROPERTY COORDINATOR
7
V

So far, we still have a substantial number of jobs:

43-9061.00 (office clerks, general)
# of Jobs
% Unskilled
# Unskilled
3,117,700
35.3%
1,100,548
# Unskilled
% Light Unskilled
# Light Unskilled
1,100,548
41%
451,224
# Unskilled
% Sedentary Unskilled
# Sedentary Unskilled
1,100,548
32.8%
360,980

Looking to physical requirements within the occupational group narrows the scope, back to the ORS.

Series ID: ORUP1000075800000130
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: office clerks, general; hours of standing/walking (90th percentile)
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: office clerks, general
Estimate: hours of standing/walking (90th percentile)
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual3.6

General office clerks do not engage in prolonged standing/walking.

Series ID: ORUP1000075800000139
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: % of office clerks, general; sitting vs. standing/walking at will is allowed
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: office clerks, general
Estimate: sitting vs. standing/walking at will is allowed
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual79.9

Most general office clerks have a sit-stand option.  

Series ID: ORUP1000075800000998
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: office clerks, general; % of day sitting is required (10th percentile)
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: office clerks, general
Estimate: % of day sitting is required (10th percentile)
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual50

Series ID: ORUP1000075800000999
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: office clerks, general; % of day sitting is required (25th percentile)
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: office clerks, general
Estimate: % of day sitting is required (25th percentile)
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual75

Series ID: ORUP1000075800001000
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: office clerks, general; % of day sitting is required (50th percentile - median)
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: office clerks, general
Estimate: % of day sitting is required (50th percentile - median)
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual85

General office clerks do engage in prolonged sitting throughout the day.  The cut-off for six hours of sitting in a day is at the 25th percentile.  If a claimant has the typical state agency finding of about six hours of sitting and six hours of standing/walking in an eight-hour day, the occupational base just got a lot smaller.  

# Unskilled
% Light Unskilled
# Light Unskilled
1,100,548
41%
451,224
# Light Unskilled
% ≤ 6 hours sitting
# ≤ 6 hours sitting, light
451,224
25%
112,806
# Unskilled
% Sedentary Unskilled
# Sedentary Unskilled
1,100,548
32.8%
360,980
# Sedentary Unskilled
% ≤ 6 hours sitting
# ≤ 6 hours sitting, sedentary
360,980
25%
90,245

Those are the starting points for any analysis.  The economy employs 451,000 light and 361,000 sedentary office clerks, general.  Whether and how these job numbers change for less than or equal to six hours of sitting in a day are illustrated here.  Other limitations for complexity, contact with regular and other contacts, and manipulative limitations constitute valid next steps.  


Children's Attendant - 349.677-018 - Occasional Handling and No Fingering

We used the SCO and the aptitudes for dexterity to show that there really are not a significant number of jobs for a person limited to light work (six hours of standing/walking), occasional handling, and no fingering. There is more than one way to tackle the problem. We look at children's attendant (DOT 349.677-018) through the O*Net and Occupational Requirements Survey.

Children's attendant (DOT 349.677-018) belongs to ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers (O*NET 39-3031.00).   Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers have irregular or seasonal schedules in 56% of jobs and work less than 40 hours per week in 90% of jobs. Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers never sit in 29% of jobs; continually or almost continually stand in 47% of jobs; walk/run continually or almost continually in 40% of jobs; and use their hands half the time or more in 56% of jobs.  The O*NET states that incumbents report that 34% of incumbents do not use their hands to manipulate objects, tools or controls. We use the O*NET work context reports to prove the point:

39-3031.00 - Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers

Structural Job Characteristics
%
Response
Duration of Typical Work Week — Number of hours typically worked in one week.
7
More than 40 hours
3
40 hours
90
Less than 40 hours
Environmental
%
Response
Work Schedules — How regular are the work schedules for this job?
44
Regular (established routine, set schedule)
32
Irregular (changes with weather conditions, production demands, or contract duration)
24
Seasonal (only during certain times of the year)
Exertional%Response
Spend Time Sitting — How much does this job require sitting?
6
Continually or almost continually
1
More than half the time
14
About half the time
50
Less than half the time
29
Never
Exertional%Response
Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
47
Continually or almost continually
28
More than half the time
19
About half the time
2
Less than half the time
4
Never
Exertional%Response
Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
20
Continually or almost continually
32
More than half the time
4
About half the time
9
Less than half the time
34
Never
Exertional%Response
Spend Time Walking and Running — How much does this job require walking and running?
10
Continually or almost continually
24
More than half the time
46
About half the time
16
Less than half the time
4
Never

The Occupational Requirements Survey provides useful data about the occupational group of ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers.

39-3031.00 (ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers)

Series ID: ORUV1000064000000064
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: % of ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers; svp is short demonstration only
Requirement: Education, Training, And Experience
Occupation: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers
Estimate: svp is short demonstration only
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual53.6

Just over half the jobs are unskilled, SVP 1. The ORS does not list categories for SVP 2 or other skill levels. Whether an employer would require training or more than high school education for children's attendant is an open and unanswered question.

Series ID: ORUP1000064000000233
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers; pounds maximum weight lifted/carried, mean
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers
Estimate: pounds maximum weight lifted/carried, mean
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual15.35

Series ID: ORUP1000064000000239
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: % of ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers; lifting/carrying up to 10 lbs is required, seldom
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers
Estimate: lifting/carrying up to 10 lbs is required, seldom
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual65

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers engage in sedentary or light exertion in 65% of jobs and some percentage of the 35% that have seldom lifting/carrying in excess of 10 pounds. Using the formula - 0.65(10) + 0.35(x) = 15.35 - yields a result that the average maximum amount lifted/carried is 28.1 pounds. It is safe to assume that some of the jobs require medium exertion whether by frequent lifting over 10 pounds or seldom/occasional lifting over 20 pounds. I assume that 90% of the jobs require light exertion or less.

Series ID: ORUP1000064000000769
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: % of ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers; fine manipulation is required
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers
Estimate: fine manipulation is required
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual88.9

With a limitation of no fingering, 11.1% of the jobs are available.

Series ID: ORUP1000064000000771
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: % of ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers; gross manipulation is required
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers
Estimate: gross manipulation is required
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual100

All jobs require gross manipulation. The ORS does not report seldom, occasional, frequent, or constant use of the hands for gross manipulation.

Series ID: ORUP1000064000000127
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers; hours of standing/walking (25th percentile)
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers
Estimate: hours of standing/walking (25th percentile)
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual4

Series ID: ORUP1000064000000128
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers; hours of standing/walking (50th percentile - median)
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers
Estimate: hours of standing/walking (50th percentile - median)
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual5

Series ID: ORUP1000064000001005
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers; % of day standing/walking is required (25th percentile)
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers
Estimate: % of day standing/walking is required (25th percentile)
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual94.8

Series ID: ORUP1000064000001006
Not seasonally adjusted
Series Title: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers; % of day standing/walking is required (50th percentile - median)
Requirement: Physical Demands
Occupation: ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers
Estimate: % of day standing/walking is required (50th percentile - median)
YearPeriodEstimate
2017Annual100

We can confidently conclude that ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers work part-time based on the standing/walking data. Standing/walking four hours per day represents almost 95% of the workday. If ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers work full-time, they stand/walk more than six hours per day.

We can check the OOH to determine aggregate job numbers and the typical education/training.

39-3031 Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

Typical Education Needed
No formal educational credential
Work Experience in a Related Occupation
None
Typical On-The-Job Training Needed to Attain Competency
Short-term on-the-job training
2016 Employment
117,700

Incumbents have at least some college in 61% of jobs.  

The Occupational Employment Statistics estimates the occupational group at 117,920 jobs.  

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers include five DOT codes, all light and unskilled.  Putting together the date from the OOH, O*NET, and ORS, we get less than 130 jobs as a children's attendant or any other occupation in the group that meet the demands of the limitations and constitute presumptive substantial gainful activity:

# of jobs
% unskilled (ORS)
# of unskilled jobs
117,700
100%
117,700
# of unskilled jobs
% light (ORS)
# light and unskilled jobs
117,700
90%
105,930
# light and unskilled jobs
% no fine manipulation (ORS)
# no fine manipulation jobs
105,930
11.1%
11,758
# no fine manipulation jobs
% occasional gross manipulation (ORS)
# no fine, occasional gross manipulation jobs
11,758
unknown 
11,758
# no fine manipulation jobs
% stand/walk ≤ 6 hours/day (ORS)
# no fine, occasional gross, 6 hours s/w jobs
11,758
< 25%
< 2,940
# no fine, 6 hours s/w jobs
% full-time (O*NET)
# full time, no fine, 6 hrs. s/w jobs
< 2,940
10%
< 294
# full time, no fine, 6 hrs. s/w jobs
% regular schedule (O*NET)
# regular, f-t, no fine, occ. gross, 6 hrs. s/w jobs
< 294
44%
< 129

BONUS SECTION:  The number of light, unskilled stock clerks and order filler jobs based on the characteristics of stock clerks - stockroom, warehouse, or storage yard  that require six hours or less of standing/walking in an eight-hour day on a regular full-time schedule:

# of jobs
% unskilled
# of unskilled jobs
117,700
100%
117,700
# of unskilled jobs
% light
# light and unskilled
117,700
90%
105,930
# light and unskilled
% stand/walk ≤ 6 hours/day
# stand/walk ≤ 6 hours/day
105,930
< 25%
26,483
# 6 hours s/w
% full-time
# full time 6 hrs. s/w
26,483
10%
2,648
# full time 6 hrs. s/w
% regular schedule
# regular, f-t, 6 hrs. s/w
2,648
44%
1,165




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